A. SUBJECT

Chủ ngữ trong câu có thể ở nhiều dạng. Tất cả có chức năng như là một danh từ đặt trước động từ. Các dạng phổ biến bao gồm:
Subjects in sentences may have various forms, all of which have the function of a noun coming before a main verb. Common forms of subjects include



Noun phrase (Cụm danh từ): The top excutives agreed to negotiate with the union.
Pronoun (Đại từ): They are having a team meeting today.
Gerund phrase (Cụm danh động từ): Operating the machinery is very difficult.
To infinitive : To meet the president was a privilege
Noun clause (Mệnh đề danh từ): What Jane needs for her office is unclear.



*The underlined parts are the focus of the subjects. These parts are often tested in TOEIC

Note:
Thông thường to-infinitive sẽ không đứng ở vị trí của chủ ngữ. Thay vì đó người ta hay sử dụng cấu trúc với chủ ngữ giả It
A to-infinitive coming in the position of a suject is not common. It is oftern used in the structure with the dummy subject It





Động từ và Tính Từ không thể ở vị trí của chủ từ
Verbs and Adjectives cannot come in the position of an subject

Example 1: A rushed (decide) decision should be avoided under any circumstances.


  • The verb decide cannot come in the position of the subject. It should be the noun decision.



Example 2: The financial (healthy) heath of the company is in doubt.


  • The adjective healthy cannot come in the position of the subject. It should be the noun health.



Notes: Pay close attention to:
Một số danh từ hay bị lầm lẫn là tính từ


Một số danh từ có dạng giống như tính từ hoặc động từ





Cần phải chia động từ phù hợp với chủ từ
Subject and its verb must agree in number



The prospect (not prospects) of increased revenue awaits us next year.

Because the verb awaits is singular, the subject must also be in the singular form (prospect)


2 Dummy Subject


1. It is used to replace a long subject such as a to-infinitive phrase or a that-clause. In this case, it is called dummy subject, and the long subject is called real subject


It (Dummy Subject) is important to finish the report by the end of Friday (Real Subject - to infinitive phrase)

It (Dummy Subject) is understood that he will resign fairly soon. (Real Subject - that clause)


2. It is used with a that-clause to emphasize the noun or prepositional phrase that comes after It


It was Jade (emphasized part) that gave a speech.

It is in the conference room (emphasized part) that the most important meetings take place.




3. The dummy subject It cannot be replaced by any other word



That It was a cat that was stuck in the tree last night.


That It is possible that nobody attend the meeting.


An English verb has five typical forms below:




1/ Basic form or bare infinitive


He improves his TOEIC score in a short time.


2/ Third person singular present form.


She wants to meet him.

3/ Past form (bare infinitive + ed/irregular past form)



Yesterday, I watched this movie.


Peter told me that he would resign next month.


4/ Present participle form


I am working at the client's office.

5/ Past participle form (bare infinitive + -ed/irregular past participle form)



I had bought the car.




English verbs are divided into THREE TYPES




  • INTRANSITIVE VERB



Structure: Subject + intransitive verb

She cries.




  • TRANSITIVE VERB



Structure: Subject + transitive verb + indirect object + direct object

She gives me some money.

Structure: Subject + transitive verb + object + object complement.

I found him wise.




  • LINKING VERB


Structure: Subject + linking verb + subject complement

She is beautiful.